The peaks in the measured spectra can therefore derive from zeros of 1 (if 2 is not too large) which correspond to collective stimulations of plasmon, or structures in 2 that are due to the interband passages of Valencia Conduction. In particular, the 2-tip that are located in energies smaller than the quasi-particles (QP) correspond to connected ex-stones. The bonding energy of the excitones is then defined as the difference between the band slot and their head position in the spectra. If we compare tetracen and pentacen, we find that the exciton is more localized on tetracen than in pentacen [51]. This is a consequence of the smallest size of the tetracene molecule in terms of pentacene (four rings of benzene instead of five) and can be understood in relation to our simplified model. In fact, if the number of benzene rings decreases, the difference between and increases, and the DE and CT countries are more separated in energy. As a result, hopping processes associated with electronic band dispersion are less effective at mixing the two states of excitement and, in turn, the exciting wave function results in more localized results. It is interesting to note that if we compare the excesses of Coronen and Picen, we find that, although the binding energy is greater in the corons, the exciton is more relocated to Coronen than to Picen, where it is pure exciton FR. This shows that knowledge of excitonic bonding energy is not sufficient to understand excitonic character. The location of the exciton is indeed determined by the difference in energy between the fr and CT situations, which is due to the competition between direct and interchangeable e-h interaction (see equation (10) and the effectiveness of the terms “hopping” in the mix of en and CT states.

In the solid, the molecular units interact with weak forces of Van der Waal. This means that bandwidth is generally small and materials are insulators. In addition, the electronic properties of solids are mainly dictated by the properties of isolated molecules: the least energetic suggestions are due to transitions between bands from π and π molecular states. This is why the suggestions of these systems were traditionally described with models based on molecular orbitals [1, 18]. Molecular solids provide a unique playing field to understand the nature of localized excesses and their interactions in materials through simple models. Quantum electrodynamics (QED), a relativistic theory of the quantum field of electrodynamics, is one of the strictest theories of physics. Famously taught by Richard Feynman, it has been described as a theory with a level of elegance that is characteristic of a fundamental truth. Although the study of ion-atom collisions is a mature field of atomic physics, the large differences between experience and theoretical calculations are still widespread. Here we present high-resolution pulse experimental results for individual helium ionization, induced by 1-MeV protons, and compare them to theoretical calculations.

The overall agreement is remarkably good, and even Born`s first rapprochement gives a good match between theory and experience. This has been expected for several decades, but has not yet been achieved. The influence of projectile coexistence effects on measured data is briefly discussed in the context of an ongoing dispute over the presence of node structures in electron angle distributions. In an independent particle image where there are no e-h interactions in play, the calculated spectrum is the sum of e-h vertical transitions.